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REFLEXOLOGY   RESEARCH   STUDIES
Research studies evaluating the effectiveness of reflexology in various conditions

In a few countries, reflexology has been recognized by the national government and either has already been integrated into the national health care system, or, is in the process of being integrated.  These countries are China, Denmark and, most recently, the United Kingdom. As a consequence, reflexology is used in these countries alongside Allopathic Medicine, and in China it is used together with Traditional Chinese Medicine as well.

You will notice that the vast majority of research studies on reflexology originate in these countries.


Click on a heading to go to the relevant Reflexology research information< or scroll down to read all information:

In the WORKPLACE
Company Reflexology- economical benefits, increased employee productivity

DIABETES
Non-Insulin Dependant; Type II; Complications of Diabetes

GASTROINTESTINAL PROBLEMS
Prevention and Treatment of Functional Constipation; Relief of Chronic Constipation
Treatment of Diarrhea; Gallbladder Constriction; Chronic Superficial Gastritis

GOUT, ARTHRITIS & MUSCULAR/SKELETAL PROBLEMS 
Knee Arthralgia; Rhematoid Arthritis; Gout; Cervical Spondylopathy

HEADACHES & PAIN
Cephalaea Headaches; Tension & Migraine Headaches; Agioneurotic Headache;
Shoulder, Neck and Head Pain; Chest Pain; Low Back Pain; Acute Lumbar 
Sprain, Arthritic & Internal Pain and Tension Headaches

NERVOUS AND SENSORY SYSTEM 
Multiple Sclerosis, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; Senile Cataract; Intractable Facial Palsy; Cerebral Thrombotic Sequelae; Insomnia; Drug Toxic Deafness 

PYSCHOLOGICAL BASED CONDITIONS 
Nervous Exhaustion; Dependency Ratings; Patients less Fraught; Mental Health

RESPIRATORY
Infantile Bronchial Asthma; Bronchial Asthma; Asthma & Bronchitis; Upper Respiratory Tract Infections; Infant Amniotic Fluid Pneumonia; Infantile Asthma; Children Pneumonia & Bronchitis

URINARY TRACT
Uretic Colic; Kidney & Ureter Stone Attacks; Bed Wetting; Excretion of Fragmented Stones
Increased Renal Blood Flow and Kidney Function

CONDITIONS AFFECTING WOMEN
PMS; Infertility; Childbirth; Gynaecological Disease; Menstrual Problems; Hypermenorrhea (heavy bleeding) Hypogalactica (low milk production); Hysteromyoma (benign uterine tumour); Chloasma (hyper pigmentation of skin)

CONDITIONS AFFECTING MEN 
The Prostate; Male Sexual Dysfunction

RECOVERY & CANCER 
Recovery; Chemo Therapy; Breast and Lung Cancer                                      


Company Reflexology Studies conducted by FDZ
(Forenede Danske Zoneterapeuter)

(Danish Reflexology Association Research Committee) 

Results of Research on Reflexology in the Workplace

Research Title

Reflexology as Personnel Care in the Municipal District of Aarhus, Denmark 

1992

Description

3 Reflexologists employed by the municipality treated 143 patients over a 6 month period. 

*  79% were either cured or helped with their primary health problem

*  57% were helped with their secondary problems

*  30% became more satisfied with their jobs

*  92% wanted to continue reflexology

Articles

Take Good Care of Your Fellow Employees by Karin Kristenson, Inge Rasmussen and Elsebeth Moller, FDZ Research Committee, 1996

Municipal Reflexology in Svendborg - 1994

A report on Company Reflexology as applied in the Danish Municipality of Svendborg.  Involves 52 female employees.

*  97.5% had positive effects on their primary ailments.

*  77.5% had positive effects on their  secondary problems

*  Medicine intake was reduced by 27.5%

*  Absenteeism was reduced by 65.9%

Municipal Reflexology in Svendborg, by Hanne Terp, FDZ Research Committee, 1995

Company Reflexology in Telecom - 1993

Over a 2 year period a reflexologist employed by the Telecom firm of Taastup, Denmark treated 156 employees, who experienced:

*  Positive effects on back pains, the musculo-skeletal system, headache, migraine, stomach and intestinal problems

*  Sick leave was reduced

It was concluded that there was a direct economical as well as increased well being and productivity of the employees.

A Close-up View on Company Reflexology, by Leila Eriksen, FDZ Research Committee, 1993.

Municipal Reflexology in Ishoj, Denmark - 1992

A reflexologist treated staff of the municipality of Ishoj for six months.

* During the 6 month period the municipality saved Danish Kroner 215,000 as absenteeism was reduced by 2,500 hours as compared to the previous year

Municipal Reflexology, by Leila Eriksen, FDZ Research Committee, 1992

Odense District Post Office, Reflexology and Ergonomics in the Company - 1992

In a 3 year period 235 employees were treated for a number of health problems.  

*  170 reported a good effect (73%)

*  60 had some effect (25%)

*  5 had no effect (2%)

*  Absenteeism was reduced from 11.4 to 8.5 days per person per year, implying

*  Savings of 1 million Danish Kroner

Postal Reflexology by Synnove Madsen & Jette Andersen, FDZ Research Committee, 1993

Staff Study in Worcester Hospitals

28 subjects received one 40 minute reflexology session weekly for six weeks.  It was reported that there were:

*  Significant improvements in pain, mobility, lassitudes and stress.

Staff Study Seen Within Worcester Hospitals, by Anne Jordan, First European Conference

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY FOR THE CONDITION OF
DIABETES MELLITUS

FOOT REFLEXOLOGY THERAPY APPLIED TO PATIENTS WITH NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETES MELLITUS

By Duang Shi-gin et al., Department of Physiotherapy, First Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Medical University, Beijing

22 patients (8 males and 14 females), with non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) were randomly divided into a Foot Reflexology Therapy (FRT) Group and a Control Group with 12 patients.  Both groups were kept on primary drug therapy while the FRT Group had additionally one 35-minute FRT session daily for 30 days.

The changes of thrombosis in vitro, thrombocyte aggregation rates, the concentration of plasma fibrinogen and serum oxidative lipid were observed in both groups pre and post treatment.  Before therapy there was no difference between the two groups.

* After therapy the indexes mentioned above were markedly improved in the FRT group, but, not significantly changed in the control group (p < 0.05).

TREATING TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS WITH FOOT REFLEXOTHERAPY

By X.M. Wang, First Teaching Hospital, Beijing Medical University; Chung Kuo Chung His I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih (China), Sept 1993 13 (9) p. 536-8, 517.

Thirty-two cases of type II diabetes mellitus were randomly divided in two groups. One group was treated with conventional Western Medicine (a hypoglycemic agent) plus Foot Reflexology (FR), the other group with the same medicine only.

After 30 days of treatment:

*  greatly reduced in the foot reflexotherapy group (p<0.05 - 0.01) were fasting blood glucose levels, platelet aggregation, length and wet weight of thrombus, senility symptom scores and serum lipid peroxide, while no significant change was observed in the Western Medicine group.

*  It was concluded that Foot Reflexotherapy was an effective treatment for type II diabetes mellitus.

FOOT REFLEXOTHERAPY IN THE TREATING FOR DIABETES AND DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS - REPORT OF 215 CASES

By Wang Haizhong, Foot Massage Clinic, Linching City, Shandong, China

215 patients (118 males and 97 females) were treated for Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with Foot Reflexology Therapy (FRT). Patients ages ranged from 36 - 70 years (mean = 53 years). The history of DM was 3 - 5 years in 27 patients, 5 - 10 years in 132 patients and 10 - 16 years in 56 patients. The hypoglycemic drugs were discontinued in mild cases and tapered gradually in severe cases.

After 1 - 6 courses of FRT (10 days each):

*  130 cases (60.5%) became asymptomatic and normoglycemic;

*  80 cases (37.2%) were left with mild symptoms and nearly normal blood/urine glucose;

*  while the remaining 5 cases (2.3%) stayed unchanged.

TREATMENT OF COMPLICATIONS TO TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS: ANALYSIS OF 31 CASES

By Hou Meiying, Fujian, China

With an explanation that the classical treatment for diabetes mellitus, including dietary control and hypoglycemic agents, has an unstable effect and a high rate of recurrence,

* this paper presents how reflexo-therapy was applied to 31 patients (18 males and 13 females, aged 40 - 85 years) successfully.

AN ANALYSIS OF THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF 28 CASES WITH DIABETIC ACROMELIC VESICLE

AND GANGRENE TREATED BY FOOT REFLEXOMASSAGE


By Zhang Guijin, Shijingshan Hospital, Beijing

28 patients with diabetic vesicles and diabetic gangrene (12 males and 16 females, aged 35 - 84 years / mean age = 65 years) were divided into two groups. Both groups were treated the same way, except the treatment group received Foot Reflexology (FR), Treatment sessions were 30 - 40 minutes each, 10 sessions = a therapeutic course. For the control group the wound cure was reached in the mean of 39.37 days. For the FR treatment group the wound cure was reached in the mean of 22.63 days.

*  The comparison between the two groups shows that the total effective rate in the FR treatment group is 98%, significantly higher than that of the control group.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY FOR THE CONDITION OF
GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS

EXPLORING THE APPLICATION OF FOOT REFLEXOLOGY FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF FUNCTIONAL CONSTIPATION


By Yang Yu-Ru, Chao Ling-Yun, Meng Guan-Ling, cao Su-wen, Hao Jia-Mo, and Zhang Suhui

Ten 30 - 40 minute reflexology sessions were administered every other day for treatment.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of foot reflexology in treating functional constipation. Forty subjects, 18 males and 22 females, aged 48 - 90 years, mean age 70 years, were used for the study. Twenty subjects were diagnosed as having constipation; the other 20 subjects were free of constipation. The time elapsed between taking a carbon tablet and the last black stool eliminated was recorded pre and post treatment.

Frequency and features of stool excretion, administrating of laxative medicine, diet and appetites were all recorded. From statistical analysis of the data it was concluded that

*  Foot reflexology: had a remarkable effect in shortening the emptying time of the digestive tract, and, that

*  foot reflexology is highly effective in curing functional constipation.

USING REFLEXOLOGY TO RELIEVE CHRONIC CONSTIPATION


By Leila Ericksen, FDZ Research Committee “Sygeplejerksen” (Danish Journal of Nursing) 24 June 1992

Subjects received two treatments a week for four weeks, with a minimum of two days between treatments, then, one treatment a week for seven weeks, for a total of 15 treatments.

Twenty female subjects were selected from 257 female applicants. The selected subjects had suffered constipation from 5 - 54 years, with an average of 24.6 years. Subjects completed questionnaire pre and post treatment. Before, during and after treatment daily observation charts registering the frequency of defecation and stool consistency were completed.

Prior to treatment defecation occurred on an average of every 4.1 days.

*  After treatment the interval between bowel movements improved dramatically to occur every 1.8 days.

*  40% of subjects experienced painful defecation prior to treatments, none after treatments.

*  50% of subjects obtained normal stool consistency after treatments, whereas none had before treatments.

*  85% reported a change in digestion.

*  55% reduced use of laxatives, and,

*  of 19 women reporting other health problems, 15 (80%) reported a positive improvement in their other health problems.

CLINICAL EXPERIENCE OF FOOT MASSAGE IN THE TREATMENT OF LIENTARY DIARRHEA


By Li Feng-chun, Sanitary Department Factory of PLA

One session of Foot Reflexology, Foot Reflex Zones for digestive tract and lymphatic system were emphasized for treatment.

25 males and 22 females from 3 months to 34 years old (mostly under 4 years old) had bowel movements 5 - 20 times a day from 2 hours to 3 days. Stools were yellowish green and watery, and the microscopical test was basically normal except for some White Blood Cells and fat cells.

*  Four hours after massage the diarrhea stopped and

*  the stool appearance returned to normal after six hours.

*  All cases were relieved

OBSERVATION OF CONSTRICTION EFFECT ON NORMAL HUMAN GALL BLADDER INDUCED BY FOOT REFLEX ZONE MASSAGE


By Duan Zhigrin, First Hospital of the Beijing Medical University

B-type ultrasonic examination was used to observe the change in gallbladder volume before and after Foot Reflex Zone Massage (FRZM). Subjects were 20 healthy people, 10 males & 10 females, aged 19 to 38 years.

After FRZM there was strong constriction in 15%, constriction in 35%, lower constriction in 50%. (p < .001)

This result compared with traditional methods: CCK test, fat-food-meal test, etc. testifies the effectiveness of FRZM on physiologic function.

*  It is concluded that FRZM helps to constrict gallbladder and gall excretion and has definite assets over other methods. Thus,

*  it can be used as a therapy for gall tract diseases or digestive diseases in general, as well as a preventative measure against gallstone incidence.

AN OBSERVATION ON 60 CASES WITH CHRONIC SUPERFICIAL GASTRITIS TREATED BY FOOT REFLEXOLOGY

By Hao Jiamo, Senior Physician, Reflexology Association, Tianjin Branch.

Treatment consisted of seven 40-minute sessions

60 patients, (50 females & 10 males, aged 18 - 72, diagnosed with chronic superficial gastritis, were treated with reflexology. Fibrogastroscopic examination pre and post treatment was used for evaluation of results. Results showed that for

*  22 (36.6%) there was complete disappearance of clinical symptoms,

*  30 (50%) there was a marked improvement of clinical symptoms.

*  The remaining 8 (13.3%) there was only partial improvement of clinical symptoms.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY
IN MUSCULAR & SKELETAL CONDITIONS INCLUDING GOUT AND ARTHRITIS

TREATMENT OF KNEE ARTHRALGIA WITH FOOT REFLEXO-THERAPY: AN ANALYSIS OF SEVENTEEN CASES


By Chen Guang-ming, Yang-Hua Clinic, Shen Zhen City

Patients received ten daily 30 - 45 minute foot reflexo-therapy treatment.

17 Patients - Eight females and nine males, aged 5 to 80 years old. Arthralgia (joint pain) was caused by trauma in 5 cases, and by arthritis in 12 cases. Results:

*  64.71% (eleven patients, including the 5 trauma caused cases) completely recovered.

*  23.53% (Four patients)  improved

*  11.76% (Two patients) were unaffected

EFFECT OF FOOT REFLEXO-MASSAGE ON RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS


By Chi Jianwen, Guanzhou, China

The seven hour-long foot reflexo-therapy treatments were administered on alternate days for a course of treatment. Two patients received two courses, the third received four.

This paper presents treatment of three female patients with rheumatoid arthritis, aged 37, 50 and 62.

*  It was concluded that the foot reflexo-therapy has satisfactory anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, but its effect, in general views is moderate.

OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF 15 CASES OF GOUT TREATED WITH FOOT 

REFLEXOTHERAPY


By Wu Zhensheng, The Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jiading District, Shanghai

Treatment consisted of one 50-minute foot reflexo-therapy treatment followed by six to fourteen 30-minute treatments, as required

This paper reports on the foot reflexo-therapy treatment of gout for 15 patients, aged 52 to 82 (average age 68), 12 males and 3 females..

The treatment was effective for all 15 patients, based on the criteria:

* obvious alleviation of arthralgia (joint pain);

* capability of walking immediately after treatment; disappearance of joint swelling and normalization of the blood uric acid concentration in blood exam.

*  Pain was alleviated for all 15 patients after their first treatment.

A CONTROLLED CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON FOOT REFLEXOLOGY TREATMENT FOR CERVICAL SPONDYLOPATHY (abnormal immobility and solidification of the neck vertebrate)


By Gui Shouching and Luo Desheng, Hospital of the Xianning Medical College, Hubei Province



Eighty patients suffering from cervical spondylopathy were divided into a treatment group of 52 patients that received foot reflexology, and a control group of 28 patients that received cervical vertebrae traction and iodine iontophoresis. Blood samples were taken pre and post treatment and sent for determinations of superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase activities, the malonicdialdehyde content and the total antioxidation activity.

Results:

*  The rate of clinical cure was higher in the foot reflexology treatment group (48.1%) than the control group (28.95%).

*  Blood analysis showed no differences between the two groups before treatment, whereas after treatment, the differences in parameters that were related to the free radical metabolism, in comparison with that before treatment were significant or quite significant, (T=2.855-18.694, P<0.01-0.001). The results suggest that the etiology, pathology and effective treatment of the disease is related to the metabolism of free radicals.

*  Comparing the two therapies it is concluded that foot reflexology has the advantages of not requiring skilled medical personnel, or equipment, and, being easy to perform with no adverse side effects, it may be learned and practiced by patient's family members.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY FOR HEADACHES & PAIN CONDITIONS

A CONTROLLED CLINICAL OBSERVATION ON FOOT REFLEXOLOGY TREATMENT FOR EFFECTS OF TREATMENT WITH STIMULATION OF THE REFLEXZONES OF THE FOOT WITH REGARD TO THE PROPHYLACTIC FLUNARIZIN TREATMENT OF PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM  CEPHALAEA HEADACHES


By A. Lafuente, M. Nouera, C. Puy, A. Molins, F. Titus and F.Sanz. Dr. Annemarie Kesselring, SBK,   Institut 

fur Pflegeforschung, Bern, Switzerland


Reflexology treatment twice a week for 2 - 3 months. They received between 12 and 30 treatments each

This study was devised as a blind random trial to verify whether reflexology is an effective prophylactic treatment for headaches. Thirty two patients, aged 15 - 57 years (mean age 39.7 years), who were sent to the cephalaea unit volunteered to participate in the study. There were 25 women and 7 men who were randomly assigned to two groups.

Group A received a glucose capsule placebo and received reflexology treatments. Group B underwent prophylactic Flunarizin treatment and was given massages of a non-specific zone twice a week for 12 sessions. Patients recorded on a monthly calendar during their treatment: the day that they had a headache, the level of severity on a scale of 1 to 4, and the duration in hours. A first check was conducted when the treatment of both groups was completed, and a second one three months later. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests showed no difference between the 2 groups regarding recovery and relapse.

*  It was concluded that reflexology was as effective as Flunarizin prophylaxis and maybe classed as an alternative non-pharmacological therapeutic technique and is particularly appropriate to patients with contraindications to pharmacological treatment.

MIGRAINE & TENSION HEADACHES AND REFLEXOLOGY TREATMENT


By National Board of Health Council, Denmark, 1995


Reflexology received over a three month period

This study aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of reflexology on migraine and tension headaches. 220 patients presenting headaches as their primary problem were treated by 78 reflexologists over a three-month time period. A consultant doctor diagnosed the type of headache before the study began. Patients completed a diary once a month prior to treatment and during the treatment time. Questionnaires were completed by the patient at the beginning and end of the series of treatments, and three months after the end of the series. Qualitative interviews were conducted at the end of the treatments. Results:

*  16% reported that they were cured,

*  65% said that reflexology had helped, and,

*  18% were unchanged.

*  Conclusion: reflexology is able to cure or help both tension and migraine headaches in a significant number of patients.

REFLEXOLOGY AND MIGRAINE HEADACHES


Unpublished report available from FDZ Research Committee, Denmark


participants received foot reflexology treatments, an average of twelve sessions per patient.

Of 100 applicants, 20 of the worst cases were selected for the study. These patients had frequent migraine headache attacks, usually for several years, and had been treated with morphine, ketogan and albergin medications. The results of the study were based on the patient's evaluation of their own condition.

*  45% (9 persons) no longer had headaches;

*  30% (6 persons) felt considerable improvement;

*  10% (2 persons) felt a little better, and

*  15% (3 persons) felt no improvement.

REFLEXOLOGY AND SHOULDER, HEAD & NECK PAIN REDUCTION


Unpublished Report available through the FDZ Research Committee, Denmark

The 26 participants received 10 foot reflexology treatments.

Twenty-six persons, 19 females and 7 males (aged 17 - 71 years) who had suffered from pain 6 months to 30 years (average = 10 years) were selected to participate from forty applicants.

26 participants complained of neck pain before. After treatment:

*  50% (13 participants)  were pain free;

*  30.77% (8 participants) felt considerable effect;

*  7.69% (2 participants) felt little effect, and

*  11.54% (3 participants) felt no effect.

23 participants complained of shoulder pain before. After treatment :

*  34.78% (8 participants) were pain free,

*  43.48% (10 participants) felt considerable effect,

*  8.70% (2 participants) felt little effect, and

*  13.04% (3 participants) felt no effect.

23 participants complained about headaches before. After treatment:

*  47.83% (11 participants) were pain free,

*  26.09% (6 participants) felt considerable effect,

*  8.70% (2 participants) felt little effect, and

*  17.39% (4 participants) felt no effect from the treatment.

Other Results:

Four participants felt pain reduction in other areas of the body, improvement in allergy and asthma symptoms, increased energy and increased well-being. Many participants reduced or eliminated their need for medication.

FOOT REFLEX ZONE MASSAGE IN TREATING AGIONEUROTIC HEADACHE(ANH): REPORT OF 26 CASES


By chiu Jian, School Hospital of the Wuhan University Hubei, China

26 patients (9 males and 17 females, aged 19 to 43 years), participated. The history of ANH ranged from one hour to 5 months. Results:

*  after one session of foot reflexology - 13 cured (symptom free), 1 symptoms relieved;

*  after two sessions - 6 cured, 1 symptom free;

*  after three sessions - 2 cured, 3 symptoms unchanged.

*  It is concluded that foot reflexology is a safe, economic therapy.

IS CHEST PAIN AFFECTED BY REFLEXOLOGY INTERVENTION?


By Margaret Rose Berker, Exeter University, UK

Weekly 45 minute foot reflexology for eight weeks

Four patients with chest pain for periods of 18 months to 13 years were treated. Patients recorded in a diary before and after treatment: the number of episodes, the intensity, and, the duration of the pain.

After 8 weeks of treatment:

*  All subjects experienced positive results.

It was decided to extend the reflexology by 7 weeks to continue the momentum of the improvements. All four patients returned after a period of months for 2 more sessions when some symptoms returned.

After nine months of treatment:

*  75% (3 patients) now suffer no chest pain and

*  25% (1 patient) had experienced a reduction in pain.

The four patients had been prescribed a variety of medications, some of which was stopped or reduced during or after treatment.

REFLEXOTHERAPY INTERVENTION IN THE TREATMENT OF NON SPECIFIED LOW BACK PAIN

By F.M.Kovacs, V. Abraira, G. Lopez-Abente and F.Pozo, Spain

 

Of  91 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of non-specific back pain, 48 were assigned to a treatment group, and 43 to a control group. The treatment group received reflexotherapic intervention; the control group underwent a similar procedure in which inappropriate zones were stimulated. Participants underwent clinical evaluation immediately prior to treatment, immediately after treatment and 30 days after treatment was completed.

*  The treatment group showed immediate clinical improvements in pain, muscular contracture and mobility. This was statistically significant (p<0.0001). These patients were able to discontinue pharmacological treatment and remain symptom free during the study period.

*  It was concluded that reflexotherapic intervention is an effective method for treating non-specific low back pain.

TREATMENT OF ACUTE LUMBAR SPRAIN WITH MASSAGE OF THE REFLEX ZONES: A REPORT

OF TWENTY CASES


By Xiao Zhengke, Hospital of Beijing College of Languages.

Twenty patients 35 - 55 years old, who suffered from acute lumbar sprain were treated with massage of the foot reflex zones. Duration of the problem was 2 hours in 18 cases, 2 days in one case and 15 days in one case. During the treatment no drugs were used.

*  25% (5 patients) were cured (pain was eliminated, function restored to normal, no discomfort) after one treatment,

*  50% (10 patients) were cured after 5 to 7 treatments.

REFLEX ACTION ON ARTHRITIC & INTERNAL PAIN, AND TENSION HEADACHES


Reported By Kath Harper, LifeWise, Australia, May 1993

Group 1 was composed of ten patients with long term arthritic pain

3 x of the lower back, 2 x of the neck, 3 x of the shoulder and 2 x of the knees/hips. After 10 treatments:

*  100% (all 10 patients) noticed some relief,

*  60% (6 patients) showing no recurrence of pain over a period of thirty days.

Group 2 consisted of twelve patients with diagnosed but unexplained internal pain. 6 x  had pain on the right side of the liver, 4 x on the right side, ileocaecal region, and 2 x  on the left side, pancreas region.

*  100% (all four cases) of ileocaecal pain and

*  50% (three cases) of liver pain reported complete cessation of the symptom with no recurrence over 40 days.

*  17% (one case) of liver pain reported reduced pain, and

*  33% (two cases) of liver pain reported no change.

*  50% (one case) of pain in the region of the pancreas had no further pain and the other

*  50% of pain in the pancreas region reported reduced symptoms with some pain still present.

Group 3 consisted of 13 patients with tension headaches - not migraine. After 40 days,

*  46% (six patients) had suffered no headaches or recurrence of neck tension;

*  31% (four) reported decreased symptoms, and

*  23% (three) reported no change.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY IN
NERVOUS SYSTEM & SENSORY SYSTEM CONDITIONS

A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF REFLEXOLOGY ON PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS


By Marian Joyce and Rosemary Richardson

Twenty six participants were assigned to two groups, 14 to treatment group and 12 to a control group. Both groups were assessed at the same intervals on a simple form listing 19 symptoms of MS before the treatment group received treatment, after 6 weeks of treatment, after 12 weeks of treatment and six weeks after the treatment group ceased treatment.

After 6 weeks of treatment :

*  a significant number of participants in the treatment group showed an improvement over the range of symptoms.

After 12 weeks of treatment:

*  81.53% of these improvements were maintained, some people improved further and some who had not improved began to improve.

In the assessment conducted 6 weeks after treatments were ceased:

*  some people had maintained their improvements, most noticeably in the symptoms of bladder control, sleep, circulation and constipation;

*  many participants lost the improvements that they had gained or their symptoms showed signs of worsening.

All participants in the treatment group showed some improvements of their symptoms and enjoyed the reflexology treatments.

Other Medical Benefits:

*  Medical conditions such as asthma, sinuses, sciatica, migraine and menstrual problems were benefited by reflexology.

It was hoped that continued reflexology treatments would maintain and build upon the improvements reported in the study, and that, sessions needed to be maintained in that the six week break showed some of the benefits gained started to diminish. The assessment for the control group showed that some participants had symptoms improve, more of them worsened and the majority showed no changes in their symptoms.  

THE POSSIBLE VALUE OF REFLEXOLOGY IN DIAGNOSED MYALGIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (painful inflammation of brain and spinal cord)


By Thomas S. McCreadie, GSSR, Member of the Scottish Institute of Reflexology


 
Treated with 10 reflexology treatments

Six patients aged 38 to 65 years, diagnosed as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (painful inflammation of the brain and spinal cord) sufferers by general practitioners, who had a mean duration of suffering of 8 years.

*  It was found that 5 treatments were necessary to effect change.

*  All patients experienced a reduction in pain and tiredness after some of the sessions.

*  After 6 months, 83% (5 patients) felt that their continuing improvement began with their reflexology treatment.

HAND AND FOOT REFLEX AREA MASSAGE IN THE TREATMENT OF SENILE CATARACT
By Zhou Di-Xin, Wuxi Commercial Hospital, Jiangsu, China


Foot reflex area massage was applied daily, with twenty sessions consisting one course of treatment.

Ten patients (4 males and 6 females) aged 58 - 73 years, with senile cataracts diagnosed by an ophthalmologist, whose clinical courses ranged from 2 to 25 years, were used for this study. Most patients received two to three courses of treatment. Visual acuity was assessed pre and post treatment.

*  Improvement was recorded for all 10 patients, and it was concluded that foot reflex area massage has a therapeutic effect in senile cataract.

FOOT REFLEXO-MASSAGE IN THREE PATIENTS WITH INTRACTABLE FACIAL PALSY
By Bei Zuofu, Tan Chunfang and Bei Meng, People's Hospital, chingan County, Heilongjiang


Daily 30 minute treatments were applied for six days

These three patients had been unresponsive to previous therapies, including systemic and local medicines, acupuncture and physical therapies. Daily therapy for 6 days was followed the patient applying self treatment for two weeks.

*  Result - completely cured – normal

TREATMENT OF 33 CASES OF CEREBRAL THROMBOTIC SEQUELAE (STROKE) WITH FOOT REFLEXOTHERAPY


By Zhang Duowen, and Wu Zhaoxia, Hospital under the fifth Bureau, Department of Water and Electricity, China


Foot reflexo-therapy was applied for 30 minutes daily, with 10 days as one course of treatment.

33 patients (23 males and 10 females) aged 44 to 78 years (average age 54.8 years). Their strokes were stable, and their clinical courses were between 2 months and 5 years. There were limb dysfunction in 26 patients and motor aphasia in 7 patients. The period of treatment ranged from 2 to 7 months. It is reported that after treatment:

* 11 patients (33.33%) were cured: symptom free, with normal limb function and independent daily life;

* 20 patients (60.61%) improved: symptom free with improved limb function; and

* 2 patients (6.06%) were unchanged: no improvement in symptoms and limb function.

* It was concluded that foot reflexo-therapy can restore the damaged brain function, and revive the limb and speech performance of patients with stroke.

*  It was also proposed that foot reflexo-therapy is useful in the prevention of cerebral thrombosis, as well as in the treatment.

 

PRELIMINARY EXPLORATION OF TREATMENT FOR INSOMNIA


By Gao Wa, Wang Zhen and Liu Haige, The Women and Infantile Health Centre of Inner Mongolia

Group A: were treated twice a day with 20 minute reflexotherapy

Group B: was treated once a day with 20 minute foot reflexotherapy

Seventy patients suffering from insomnia, were randomly divided into group A and Group B. Forty one patients (58.57%) had had insomnia for more than 3 years, twenty nine patients (41.43%) for less than 3 years. Twenty-five patients (58.57%) were completely dependent on sleeping pills to sleep, 33 patients (47.14%) took sleeping pills as need, and 12 patients (17.14%) refused to take medication.

The criteria for effectiveness was that the patient could go to sleep naturally and next day would feel relaxed, comfortable and clear minded.

Results after 5 days of treatment:

Group A: Reflexotherapy effective for 88.57 %

Group B: Reflexotherapy effective for 22.86% of

Results after 10 days of treatment:

Group A: Reflexotherapy effective for 100%

Group B: Reflexotherapy effective for 91.43%

It was concluded that adopting intense stimulation (twice a day) can help the patient's body to readjust itself within a shorter time and yield a better result.

FOOT REFLEXOLOGY IN THE TREATMENT FOR 5 CASES WITH DRUG TOXIC DEAFNESS


By Zhao Zhijian, Zhou Gengye and Zhou Xin, Service Centre of Foot Health Care, Ganghou, Jiangxi Province

Treated with 40 minute daily foot reflexology treatments

Five patients, 4 females and 1 male, (2 aged 55 - 65 years, 1 aged 35 -45 years, and 1 aged 20 - 35 years) were treated with 40 minute daily foot reflexology treatments. All patients had contracted the disease for many years and had been treated by many other therapies without effect. Therapy was stopped when a patient could hear the speaking voice from a certain distance and give an answer - this was after 14 - 28 days of treatment.

* All five patients experienced improvement with no recurrence in follow up.

*  It was concluded that foot reflexology has good therapeutic effects in treating deafness.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY IN
PSYCHOLOGICAL BASED CONDITIONS

FOOT REFLEXOLOGY THERAPY IN NEUROSISM (Nervous Exhaustion)

By Duan Shuang-Feng, Department of Physiotherapy, 52884 Military Hospital, China


Daily foot reflexology therapy for 7 days

Twenty cases of neurasthenics (nervous prostration), 8 males and 12 females, with clinical courses ranging from 1 to 8 years, were treated. All patients had received various long-term medical treatments with poor effects. Results:

*  8 cases (40%) cured, free of symptoms;

*  7 cases (35%) greatly improved, nearly free of symptoms;

*  3 cases (15%) mildly improved, symptoms reduced:

*  2 cases (10%) unchanged, no relief after two courses

THE EFFECTS OF REFLEXOLOGY TREATMENT ON PATIENT DEPENDENCY RATINGS


By Anne Craig and Hugh Rooney, Corstorphine Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland

The main purpose of this study was to determine whether regular reflexology treatments would have a beneficial effect on patient dependency ratings, and, to assess the extent to which the patients valued the reflexology treatment. Eighteen patients were selected and randomly assigned to a treatment group that received reflexology treatment, and a control group that received light foot massage.

The results:

*  improvement in dependency scores was more marked in the reflexology group, and

*  greater deterioration in the control group over eight weeks.

It was concluded that reflexology is a potentially valuable means of enhancing the well being of elderly patients.

WAS IT THE FOOT MASSAGE THAT MADE THE ELDERLY PATIENTS LESS FRAUGHT?


By Mike Thomas RMN, Salford School of Nursing, Manchester, U.K.

The treatment group had daily one-hour reflexology sessions

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of reflexology on elderly patients, and, to record the attitudes of 14 nurses to reflexology. Nine patients who exhibited signs of anxiety were studied over eight days. They were divided into three groups:

Group 1 the treatment group had daily one-hour reflexology sessions and measured their own subjective anxiety levels pre and post sessions.

Group 2 had one- hour pleasant conversations with staff and measured their own subjective anxiety levels pre and post sessions.

Group 3 had no staff interaction and measured their own subjective anxiety levels at 2 p.m. and 3p.m.

Results:

Group 1: all three patients experienced a drop in anxiety levels. One client began at level 8 and dropped to 4, and one from 5 to 1.

Group 2: the results were not so dramatic with a drop of 1-3. Group 3: anxiety levels rose or stayed the same, with a fall on one occasion only.

*  Before the study none of the nurses saw reflexology as an appropriate intervention, after the study 12 nurses saw reflexology as a useful intervention.

REFLEXOLOGY AND COUNSELLING ON MENTAL HEALTH PATIENTS

A new report from the association of MIND (Worthing) Peta Trousdell, Andrea Uphoff-Chmielnik. Making connections: user perception of the effects of Reflexology and Counselling: an evaluation of a complementary health care project at Worthing Mind. September 1997.

Research was carried out between May 1996 and August 1997 in which a reflexologist and a counsellor worked with a total of 74 people (49 received reflexology and 25 received counselling).

 

The report’s findings based upon the observations of the therapists and the participants indicate that:

*  Physical improvements underpinned feelings of enhanced mental/emotional well-being for many participants. For example, the researchers observed that the release of tension through being able to talk led to greater relaxation, which in turn was found to alleviate headaches and improve sleep.

*  With the exception of two participants in the reflexology sample, there was a reported increase in relaxation levels and a decrease in anxiety levels.

*  The reflexologist noted that participants developed an increased awareness of tension in the body and an increased ability to change that state, e.g. they consciously altered their breathing and their posture.

*  Many participants reported improved emotional status. Fear, worry and despair reported at the beginning of the study were considered to have changed into more positive and fulfilling emotions.

*  There was a general consensus among the participants that an offer of more complementary therapies would be of overall benefit within the mental health service.

Perhaps the most interesting finding of the study was that the participants tended to make greater progress when reflexology and counselling were offered together, and the report recommended greater integration of the therapies.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY IN
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM CONDITIONS

A CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF FOOT REFLEXO MASSAGE FOR THE TREAMENT OF 45 CASES WITH INFANTILE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA


By Duanmu Hui-xian, Health Centre for Women and Children, Haimen, Jiangsu Province.

Daily 40 - 50 minute reflexology sessions were administered. The length of the therapeutic course ranged from 2 to 12 weeks

 Forty five patients in the out-patient clinic, aged 5 months to 7 years (mean age = 3.8 years), with 25 boys and 20 girls. The range of the course of the bronchial asthma disease was 3 to 63 months.

When the therapeutic course was complete:

*  the clinical symptoms of all 45 patients disappeared, the rate of clinical cure being 100%.

It is pointed out that in such young children, if they receive drugs, toxic reactions will occur as their visceral states are not fully developed; and, that generally infants do not like injection and forceful administration of drugs, but, do accept foot reflexology.

REFLEXOLOGY, ASTHMA AND BRONCHITIS


Unpublished 1988, report available from FDZ Research Committee


 Received ten reflexology sessions each

Sixteen persons who suffered from asthma and bronchitis had received extensive medical treatment without real improvements were treated with reflexology.

At the end of treatment:

*  3 patients (18.75%) reported a complete cure, they no longer required spray treatments;

*  9 patients (56.25%) felt considerable improvement and could reduce their spray treatments from 8 - 10 x day to 1 - 2 x day;

*  2 patients (12.5%) felt better;

*  1 patient (6.25%) felt a little better, and,

*  1 patient (6.25%) felt no improvement.

TREATMENT OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION (URTI) IN CHILDREN WITH FOOT REFLEXO-MASSAGE


By Li fengchun, Clinic of the 3520 Factory of PLA

This paper asserts that URTI is a common respiratory disease and reports on treating 81 children aged 3 to 6 years with foot reflexo-massage. It is reported that the results were satisfactory and presents four typical cases.

In discussion it is asserted that foot reflexo-therapy, in combination with appropriate medical therapy, can not only

*  shorten the clinical course and

*  prevent complications, but also

*  improve the immune activity,

*  promote the child's recovery, and

*  reduce the recurrence of the disease.

It is concluded that it is an excellent way to treat both the symptoms and the disease.

CLINICAL REPORT OF 18 CASES OF INFANT AMNIOTIC FLUID ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA TREATED WITH FOOT REFLEXOLOGY


By Duanmu Huixian, Health Center For Women & Children, Hai Men City, Jiangsu Province

Foot reflexology treatments were given twice a day, 30 - 45 minutes for each session. Three to seven sessions constituted a course of treatment

This paper reports on the use of foot reflexology for 18 patients (8 boys and 10 girls) with amniotic fluid aspiration pneumonia. Clinical symptoms are described and the method of treatment is presented.

After a course of treatment:

*  the symptoms of all 18 patients were disappeared.

In the summary it is stated that the morbidity of amniotic fluid aspiration had increased in recent years with high mortality which accounted for 22.82% of the mortality of the newborn infants. It was proposed that by improving blood circulation foot reflexology facilitates elimination of respiratory secretion and therefore is beneficial for the absorption of amniotic fluid.

A CLINICAL INVESTIGATION ON 57 CASES WITH INFANTILE ASTHMA TREATED BY FOOT REFLEXOLOGY


By Duanmu Huixian, Health Center For Women & Children, Haimen, Jiangsu Province

This paper reports on 57 children, aged 5 months to 7.2 years, with infantile asthma treated successfully with foot reflexology.

*  Fifty-five (96.5%) were evaluated as cured with no recurrence, and

*  two (3.5%): one 4 - 5 years, one 6 - 7 years were improved but had recurrence.

Concerns regarding medication treatment included the toxic effect on the young children's incompletely developed organs, plus, the children's resistance to taking medication by injection or orally. In comparison infants and young children readily accept reflexology.

FOOT MASSAGE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN PNEUMONIA AND BRONCHITIS


By Wu Huiming, The Fifth People's Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China


This paper reports on the use of foot massage (FM) as an adjunctive therapy in 103 children suffering from prolonged and repeated pulmonary or bronchial infections. The history in most cases was between 2 - 4 years, with recurrence for 2 weeks to 3 months.

In acute cases, applying antibiotics in conjunction with foot reflexology showed

*  significantly better effects than using antibiotics alone.

In sub acute or chronic cases the foot reflexology was the priority treatment. The foot reflexology was observed to be able to

*  cure prolonged, refractory cases in a relatively short time.

Some cases with frequent recurrence (1-2 times/month) were followed for six months with

*  no recurrent infection after the foot reflexology.

In conclusion, it is claimed that in view of the present data collected, foot reflexology is better than other therapies in both preventing and curing pulmonary and bronchial infections.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY IN
URINARY SYSTEM CONDITIONS

INCREASED RENAL BLOOD FLOW & KIDNEY FUNCTION

Sudmeier l et al. Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by colour Doppler sonography.

Forschende Komplementaermedizin 6(3): 129-34 Jun 1999

Researchers in Austria studied the effects of reflexology upon renal blood flow. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) participated in a placebo-controlled, double blind trial.

The treatment group received reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney.

The placebo group received treatment on other foot zones.

The blood flow of 3 vessels of the right kidney was measured then monitored prior to, during and following reflexology. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured and resistive index calculated.

The two groups showed significant differences:

*  a highly significant decrease showed during and following reflexology. There were no differences between men and women nor smokers and non-smokers.

These results are consistent with the hypothesis that reflexology is effective in influencing renal blood flow and confirms the results of independent research that reflexology can significantly help kidney function..

URETERIC COLIC AND REFLEXOLOGY THERAPY


By Baekgard, Niels and Vibe-Hansen, Henrik. Ugeskr. Laeg. 1981, 143, 676-678.

To assess the effects of reflexology therapy on patients with acute ureteric colic (pain caused by kidney stones). The material comprised 30 patients distributed equally in a therapeutic group and two control groups.

*  Relief of pain could be demonstrated after reflexology therapy. Compared to an ordinary analgesic, BaralginO, relief of pain was more rapid but had a shorter duration.

REFLEXOLOGY RESEARCH INTO ENURESIS (NOCTURNAL/BEDWETTING) 1 & 2


By Krogsgaard, Dorte; Poulsen, Edith; Kyhl, Torben; Bo Lund, Jens; and, Eriksen, Leila.

Thirty-minute treatments were administered twice weekly for four weeks (with a minimum of 2 days between treatments), followed by weekly treatments for seven weeks.

Twenty children, aged 5 - 10 years, who had a minimum of 3 night time bed wettings per week were treated with foot reflexology alone. Parents filled out an observation questionnaire during treatment and for one month following treatment. Of the twenty, eighteen completed treatment.

*  A decrease in the night time amount of urine was reported by 43.8% of the parents, and 23.5% moved from the category of "soaking wet" to "a little wet".

*  Upon conclusion of treatment, one boy was completely dry.

For one month after the conclusion of treatment the effects were maintained, and one boy and one girl were completely dry, also one boy was almost dry. Some parents reported a change in their child's sleep pattern:- now the child would awaken upon urination, which they previously had not done.

FOOT REFLEXOLOGY AS AN ACCESSORY TREATMENT AFTER EXTERNAL LITHOTRITY, A CLINICAL OBSERVATION OF 46 CASES (Kidney Stones)


By Ying Xiaojian and Chen Yihua, People's Hospital of Lishui City, Zhejiang Province

Treated with 45 minute foot reflexology (FR) sessions

Forty-six patients suffering from renal stones and ureter stones (kidney stones), from 6 mm to 10 mm in diameter, comprised the treatment group, and, were compared to 50 patients with equivalent size stones who were not treated with reflexology, in a control group. B-scan and X-ray examinations were used for diagnosis.

Foot reflexology was applied on the second day after the stones were broken with a lithoclast. The commencement and completion of excretion of stones was charted. Charts display an

*  expedited commencement and completion of the excretion process for the  treatment group.

It is proposed that foot reflexology accelerates renal secretion and fluent micturition to help the excretion of fragmental stones.

BEDWETTING


A 1990 Australian study reported in the International Council of Reflexologists Newsletter, February 1994.

Reflexology treatment: a minimum of two sessions per week. The minimum number of sessions was ten, and the maximum was twenty.

Forty-two patients, aged 4 - 12 years, were given treatments.

*  No change was noticed until after the tenth treatment.

*  The result showed that by the twentieth session there was either less urination in urine volume or less incidence of wetting in 29 (70%) of the cases.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY IN
CONDITIONS AFFECTING WOMEN

RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY OF PREMENSTRUAL SYMPTOMS TREATED WITH REFLEXOLOGY


By Terry Oleson PhD and William Flocco, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 82, No. 6, December 1993


The reflexology sessions for both groups were provided by trained reflexology therapist once a week for 8 weeks, and lasted 30 minutes each.

This study was designed to determine whether reflexology treatment can significantly reduce premenstrual symptoms compared to a placebo treatment. Thirty-five women who complained of previous distress with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) were randomly assigned to be treated by reflexology or to receive placebo reflexology. All subjects completed a daily diary, which monitored 38 premenstrual symptoms on a four-point scale. Somatic and psychological indicators of premenstrual distress were recorded each day for 2 months before treatment, for 2 months during reflexology treatment, and for 2 months afterward.

Results: Analysis of Variance for repeated measures demonstrated a significantly

*  greater decrease in premenstrual symptoms for the women given true reflexology than for the women in the placebo group.

*  The treatment group showed a 46% reduction in premenstrual symptoms, which was sustained at 41% during the post treatment period.

It was concluded that reflexology is an appropriate therapy for the treatment of PMS.

HAS REFLEXOLOGY AN EFFECT ON INFERTILITY?


By Leila Ericksen, FDZ Research Committee, Denmark


Sixteen 45 minute reflexology treatments over a 7 - 8 month period. Treatments were given 2 times a week for 4 weeks, then 2 treatments before ovulation

To determine the effect of reflexology on infertility 61 women were given reflexology treatments.

*  Nine women (15%) became pregnant within six months after starting treatment.

*  Of two thirds of the women who had menstruation problems 77% experienced an appreciable improvement, with the majority totally getting rid of the problems.

*  Three quarters of all the women reported improvements in other ailments such as: muscle tensions, psychic imbalances, indigestion, poor circulation and general imbalance.

EASIER BIRTHS USING REFLEXOLOGY


By Gabriella Bering Liisberg, "Tidsskrift for Jordemodre", No. 3, 1989.

103 women who gave birth at Gentofte county hospital in 1988,  chose reflexology as an alternative to both pain killing drugs and to labour stimulating and inducing drugs.

Of sixty-eight women who chose reflexology with no analgesic drugs:

*  sixty one( 89.71%) stated that reflexology had helped reduce pain (4 also required pain medication)

*  six (8.82%) felt no effect, and,

*  one had increased pain in spite of reflexology treatment.

Of forty-nine women who chose reflexology to stimulate labour:

*  twenty-four gave birth without additional drug treatment.

Fourteen women who were candidates for surgical

delivery, received reflexology treatment between 30 and 60 minutes of birth:

*  Eleven (78.57%) were then able to discharge the placenta.

*  The other three had it surgically removed.

All participants, except one, found the reflexology treatments extremely pleasant.  

THE EFFECTS OF REFLEXOLOGY ON LABOUR OUTCOME


By Dr. Gowri Motha and Dr. Jane McGrath, Forest Gate, London


Completed the set course of ten treatments

 Thirty-seven pregnant women, received free reflexology.

*  The effects of reflexology on labour outcomes were perceived as outstanding.

Some had labour times of only 2 hours, some 3 hours. The 20 - 25 year olds had an average time of First stage labor of 5 or 6 hours. The 26 - 30 year olds seemed to have the longest labors. In total, the average first stage was 5 hours, second stage 16 minutes, and third stage 7 minutes. This is compared to textbook figures of 16 to 24 hours' first stage, and, 1 to 2 hour's second stage.

FOOT REFLEXO-THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT FOR 50 CASES OF GYNAECOLOGICAL DISEASES


By Hui Song, Senior Doctor, Nanjing Obstetrical and Gynecological Hospital


Treated with foot reflexotherapy on each or every other day, 10 sessions = one course of treatment. Duration of therapy ranged from 10 sessions to two years.

Fifty patients, aged 20 to 51 years, diagnosed with gynecological diseases including dysmenorrhea, hysteromyoma, pelvic inflammation, cyst and mass, endometriosis, menstrual disorder, infertility and chocolate cyst. Results:

*  Forty-two (84%) patients, the symptoms completely disappeared - normal menstruation with no dysmenorrhea.

*  For the remaining 8 patients (16%) symptoms had almost completely disappeared.

EXPERIENCE IN 10 CASES OF DYSMENSTRUATION TREATED WITH FOOT REFLEXOLOGY


By Wu Zhixing, Department of Foot Reflexology, Hangzhou Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital


Treatment sessions ranged from 5 to 10 minutes, and did not include whole foot massage, but, targeted specific reflex areas for pain relief.

Ten patients (17 - 26 years old, mean age: 21 years) were observed to study the effect of foot reflexo-therapy on dysmenstruation (painful menstruation).

Three of the patients had tried western or Chinese therapies without significant effect.

*  It was concluded that foot reflexo-therapy achieved analgesic effect very quickly.

FOOT REFLEXOLOGY IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPOGALACTIA (Deficiency of Milk Secretion)


By Zhang Jie, Department of Massage, The Second Hospital of the Tianjin Traditional Chinese Medical College, and Zhao Tianjun, Hospital affiliated to the Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Institute, Tianjin, China.

Ten cases of hypogalactia were treated with foot reflexology successfully. Compared with routine therapies the authors asserted: that Foot Reflexology:

*  provided abundant and stable sources of milk, that

*  enhanced both mother and babies immune function,

*  has rapid effect and needs less time, and,

*  avoids the intake of drugs, which may be absorbed by the baby through the breast milk.

FOOT REFLEXOLOGY IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERMENORRHEA (Excessive uterine bleeding): REPORT OF 28 CASES


By Wu Zhixing, Hangzhou Traditional Medical Hospital, Zhejiang, China


Between 15 and 25 treatments were done

 This is a report on the effectiveness of treating 28 patients with hypermenorrhea by using foot reflexo-therapy (FRT).

*  For twenty-three (82.2%) of the patients the FRT was significantly effective, the symptoms were relieved and there was no recurrence during the observation.

*  For the remaining 5 (17.8%) patients the FRT was effective, symptoms were relieved, but continued treatment was necessary for permanent effect.

TREATMENT OF HYSTEROMYOMA (benign tumor developed from the proliferating uterine smooth muscle) WITH FOOT REFLEXOLOGY: REPORT OF 7 CASES


By Wang Yuying and Liu Yong, Chuncheng People's Hospital, and, chin Zidan, Jilin Traditional Medical College, Changchun, Jilin


The FRT treatment lasted from 1 - 3 months, until the tumours and symptoms disappeared, and then self-massage was continued as an after treatment.

Seven women diagnosed with hysteromyoma, confirmed by B-mode ultrasonography and endoscopy examination, were treated with foot reflexo-therapy (FRT). There were five cases of leiomyoma uteri, one case of subserous myoma, and one case of submucous myoma. All patients had a single tumour, the size ranged from 3cm. to 7 cm.

*  It is concluded that foot reflexo-therapy is a cheap, safe, and surprisingly effective first choice in treatment of hysteromyoma.

TREATMENT OF CHLOASMA (hyper skin pigmentation) WITH COMBINED FOOT AND FACIAL MASSAGE: REPORT OF 12 CASES


By Gao Zechuan, Hospital of Beijing Linguistic College.


10 - 30 sessions of therapy, a combination of foot and facial massage.

This paper reports on the treatment of twelve women (aged 25 - 40 years) whose history of chloasma  ranged from 1 to 12 years. After 10 - 30 sessions of therapy, a combination of foot and facial massage: 

*  8 women (66.7%) the lesion nearly completely disappeared and the skin returned to normal.

*  In three other women (25%) the pigment lightened with nearly normal central area, but a still discernable contour,

*  in the remaining case (8.3%) there was no change.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY IN
CONDITIONS AFFECTING MEN

REFLEXOLOGY AND THE PROSTATE


By Bauneholm School of Reflexology, Denmark

Participants received thirteen foot reflexology treatments

Forty-six participants, (14 aged 40 - 60, 32 aged 60 - 90), received thirteen foot reflexology treatments.

Results showed that :

* thirty participants (65%) experienced a reduction in their need to urinate,

* thirty-one participants (67%) experienced a better bladder pressure,

* thirty-seven (80%) experienced reduced sexual problems, and,

* twenty-eight (60%) experienced improvement of their general condition.

It was concluded that reflexology can help prostate problems as improvements were noted in all reported parameters.

THE COMPARISON OF CURATIVE EFFECTS BETWEEN FOOT REFLEXOLOGY AND CHINESE TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN TREATING 37 CASES WITH MALE'S SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION


By Sun Jianhua, Health station of chianjin Clothing Factory, Shanghai


Treated with daily 30-minute foot reflexology sessions for one month

Thirty-seven men (aged 22 - 50 years) with sexual dysfunction (course of disease ranged from 3 months to 4years) were randomly assigned to two groups. One group (18) treated with daily 30-minute foot reflexology sessions, the other group (19) treated with traditional Chinese medicine. Treatments were for at least one month.

The effective rate for the group treated with foot reflexology was:

* 94.7%;

for the group treated with traditional Chinese medicine:

* 94.4%.

No statistical difference between the curative effect of these two groups was found.

* The authors note that foot reflexology had the advantages of being easy and inexpensive.

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RESEARCH STUDIES EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REFLEXOLOGY IN
RECOVERY & CANCER

REFLEXOLOGY & RECOVERY


Kesselring A. (foot reflex zone massage) Fussreflexzonemassage. Schweiz med Wochenschr suppl (SWITZERLAND) 1994, 62 p88-93

According to a 1994 Swiss medical report, foot Reflexology is one of the most useful treatments for post operative gynaecological patients. The researchers demonstrated that

*  reflexology enhances urination,

*  stimulates bowel movements and so aids recovery.

*  Patients who received reflexology treatment also showed a much less need for medication than patients in the control group.

FOOT REFLEX ZONE MASSAGE ALLEVIATES SYMPTOMS INDUCED BY CHEMOTHERAPY IN PULMONARY MALIGNANT TUMOUR PATIENTS


By Li Long Yun and Associates, Associate Professor of the Union Hospital, China


The treatment group received 30 - 40 minute foot reflexology daily for 12 days

Twenty-one subjects were used in this study. Nine in the control group received chemotherapy. Twelve in the treatment group received chemotherapy and Foot Reflex Zone Massage.

*  It was concluded that foot reflexology might play an important role in alleviating gastrointestinal tract symptoms such as anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and,

*  that it was found beneficial in managing adverse side effects induced by chemotherapy in patients with malignant tumors.

PAIN & NAUSEA IN PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED WITH CANCER

Grealish L, Lomasney A, Whiteman B Cancer Nurs 2000 Jun;23(3):237-43 The School of Nursing, Division of Science and Design, University of Canberra, Australia.

Participants received a 10-minute reflexology foot massage (5 minutes per foot)

87 patients participated in the study. The results revealed that the treatments produced

*  a significant and immediate effect on the patients' perceptions of pain, nausea, and relaxation, when measured with a visual analog scale.

The use of reflexology foot massage as a complementary method is recommended as a relatively simple nursing intervention for patients experiencing nausea or pain related to the cancer experience. The results were so positive that the researchers recommend that further research using larger numbers of patients in controlled clinical trials into its effectiveness of reflexology in alleviating pain, nausea and anxiety in the management of these symptoms by the family at home is warranted.

The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer

Oncol Nurs Forum 2000 Jan-Feb;27(1):67-72. Stephenson NL, Weinrich SP, Tavakoli AS School of Nursing, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.


The patients were given a 30 minute reflexology treatment by a certified reflexologist

The researchers monitored twenty three patients (most of whom were female and over 65 years old) diagnosed with breast or lung cancer. The patients were given reflexology treatment and there were no other changes made to their daily schedule or in their medications.

The results revealed that, following the foot reflexology treatments, the patients with breast and lung cancer experienced

*  a significant decrease in anxiety,

*  and one of three pain measures showed that patients with breast cancer experienced a significant decrease in pain.

The report of this small scale study concludes that reflexology treatment can lead to a significant decrease in anxiety for patients diagnosed with breast or lung cancer, and a decrease in pain for patients with breast cancer. This has important implications for nursing practice as both professionals and lay people can be taught reflexology.

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References:
1.  www.internethealthlibrary.com/Therapies/Reflexology-Research20%/htm 
       
(downloaded December 2003)
2.  www.pacificreflexology.com (downloaded December 2003)


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